National schools[ edit ] Main Building of St. Michael's College National School, Batticaloa. One of the leading national schools in Colombo National schools come under the direct control of the Ministry of Education and therefore have direct funding from the ministry.
An action research case study on the impact of systematic and individualised instruction along with motor-skill practice on the development of handwriting skills and self-confidence of primary school children with dysgraphia.
If children meet constant failure and frustration, they feel that they are inferior to others, and develop low level of self-efficacy, which may have negative impact on their future as well Handley et al.
Identifying students who have dysgraphia can be a challenge because it affects them to different degrees or is often combined with other types of learning problems Cavey, Although the accurate determination of dysgraphia requires the input of a qualified clinician, parents and teachers can observe symptoms of distorted handwriting.
There is no total cure for dysgraphia, instead, students must be taught both compensation and remediation strategies in early age to help them cope with or improve their writing ability Richards In Sri Lanka, though the school system practises inclusive education, no special strategies are employed to identify children with dysgraphia.
But it can be observed, at average, there are at least two or three children in a class of thirty five who are unable to produce legible handwriting even in their first language. Unfortunately, these children are neglected through-out their schooling due to common hindrances in a school system such as over-crowded classrooms, lack of knowledge of teachers to deal with dysgraphia, and so forth.
In light of this, a case study will be carried out to study an action research that will be implemented to develop handwriting of two primary school children with mild and severe dysgraphia in a semi-urban mainstream-school in Kandy district, in Sri Lanka.
The findings of this study may give an insight to teachers to assist their students with dysgraphia, in similar contexts. The prefix dys indicates that there is impairment. Graph refers to producing letter forms by hand.
The suffix ia refers to having a condition. According to Arthur and Emilydysgraphia is usually associated with lesions in the inferior parietal lobe, and, Mather states that it is due in part to the left hemisphere of the brain not being fully developed before the introduction of handwriting.
Another view regarding the cause of dysgraphia is that it can be genetic. On the other hand, Feizabadi, et al.
When considering the types of dysgraphia, there are several classifications found in the literature. Dysgraphia Guidance Document, However, not all writing problems are the results of dysgraphia Berninger, ; Berninger, Winn, et. According to them, some children fall outside the normal range in all areas of development i.
Due to the development of new tools e. However, a teacher or a parent can identify dysgraphic handwriting by careful observation Craig, According to Richardsthe most common features of dysgraphia are illegible handwriting, inconsistent spacing between letters and words; irregular letter sizes and shapes; inappropriate mixture of upper and lower case letters, etc.
Only by watching the writing process will an astute teacher or parent observe, that the child forms the same letter using different sequences throughout the sample, or that the child needs to think about how to create specific letters Berninger et al.
As for treatment for Dysgraphia, it can be diagnosed, and challenged if appropriate remedial strategies such as direct instructions are conscientiously carried out Smits-Engelsman, et al. Richards advises on three forms of assisting the children with dysgraphia; Accommodations, providing alternatives to written expression; Modification, changing expectations or tasks to minimise or avoid the areas of weakness; and Remediation, providing instruction for improving handwriting and writing skills.
In the literature, majority of the research carried out on dysgraphia are based on neuropsychological aspect of the disability. In light of this, a case study will be conducted on an action research exploring the impact of routinely exercises on motor skills, individualized, and step-by-step instructions, thorough practice of handwriting activities, continuous assessment and constructive feedback on the development of the self-confidence, thus promoting the handwriting of two children with severe and moderate levels of dysgraphia.
The research involves a case study, based on an action research. Yin, argues that different methods can be used for different purposes in a study, to best answer the research question s. Since quantitative and qualitative approaches each have their own strengths and weaknesses, it makes sense to use different approaches to cancel out such negative effect and this will lead to greater confidence being placed in the conclusions Smith, A case study is a strategy which involves an empirical investigation of a particularly contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence Robson, An action research combines diagnosis, action, and reflection focus on practical issues that have been identified by participants and which are somehow both problematic yet capable of being changed Swann, The case study, as well as, action research will be of particular interest to the researcher if he wishes to gain a rich understanding of the context of the research and the processes being enacted Morris, In addition, a well-constructed case study, or an action research may enable the researcher to challenge an existing theory and also provide a source of new research questions.
Participants The participants of the study will be a fourth grade boy with severe dysgraphia, and a girl of the same age with mild dysgraphia, in a mainstream school in Kandy district, Sri Lanka.
Purposive sampling will be adopted in selecting the participants, since it will best answer the research question and meet the objectives of the research Saunders, Although a small sample may contain cases that are completely different, as above, Patton argues that this in fact a strength.
Generalizability is a limitation with small samples, however, all research are not always interested in generalisability but may aim to understand an issue in more depth and provide an insight to other researchers in similar contexts Neuman, From these, the two participants will be selected.
The class-teachers of these participants from gradesand English teachers from grades will be grouped-interviewed for 45 minutes following the semi-structured interview strategy to gain knowledge about the academic and social behaviour of the participants.
Individualised learning and teaching programmes Howe,and step-by-step instructions Van Galen, will be conducted to the participants. The child with severe dysgraphia will be taught the 26 simple letters of the English alphabet in 8 weeks, 30 minutes each day, 5 days a week.
Similarly, the child with mild dysgraphia will be taught how to write the English alphabet, two-letter words, three-letter words, simple sentences, small paragraphs with correct writing mechanisms.Education system in sri lanka essay.
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Essay: What is the impact of ‘application of appropriate strategies in teaching and developing self-confidence’ on the primary school children with dysgraphia, in Sri Lanka? Research Topic: An action research case study on the impact of systematic and individualised instruction along with motor-skill practice on the development of .
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Today Sri Lanka needs more skilled based school education system to supply effective and skilled labor force. Education in Sri Lanka has a long history that dates back two millennia. The Constitution of Sri Lanka provides free education as a fundamental right. Sri Lanka's population had an adult literacy rate of % in , which is above average by world and regional standards.