Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in the sun Hyperbole - exaggeration I have a million things to do today. Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British.
Frazer[ edit ] The anthropological origins of archetypal criticism can pre-date its analytical psychology origins by over 30 years. The Golden Bough —written by the Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazerwas the first influential text dealing with cultural mythologies.
Frazer was part of a group of comparative anthropologists working out of Cambridge University who worked extensively on the topic. The Golden Bough was widely accepted as the seminal text on myth that spawned numerous studies on the same subject.
Eventually, the momentum of Frazer's work carried over into literary studies. In The Golden Bough Frazer identifies practices and mythological beliefs shared among primitive religions and modern religions.
Frazer argues that the death-rebirth myth is present in almost all cultural mythologies, and is acted out in terms of growing seasons and vegetation. The myth is symbolized by the death i. Her mother Demeterthe goddess of the harvest, was so sad that she struck the world with fall and winter.
While in the underworld Persephone ate six of the twelve pomegranate seeds given to her by Hades; consequently, she was forced to spend half the year, from then on, in the Underworld, representative of autumn and winter, or the death in the death-rebirth myth.
The other half of the year Persephone was permitted to be with Demeter in the mortal realm, which represents spring and summer, or the rebirth in the death-rebirth myth.
Jung's work theorizes about myths and archetypes in relation to the unconsciousan inaccessible part of the mind. From a Jungian perspective, myths are the "culturally elaborated representations of the contents of the deepest recess of the human psyche: Jungian analytical psychology distinguishes between the personal and collective unconsciousthe latter being particularly relevant to archetypal criticism.
The collective unconscious, or the objective psyche as it is less frequently known, is a number of innate thoughts, feelings, instincts, and memories that reside in the unconsciousness of all people.
Jung's definition of the term is inconsistent in his many writings. At one time he calls the collective unconscious the "a priori, inborn forms of intuition" Lietchwhile in another instance it is a series of "experience s that come upon us like fate" Regardless of the many nuances between Jung's definitions, the collective unconsciousness is a shared part of the unconscious.
To Jung, an archetype in the collective unconscious, as quoted from Leitch et al. The archetypes to which Jung refers are represented through primordial images, a term he coined. Primordial images originate from the initial stages of humanity and have been part of the collective unconscious ever since.
It is through primordial images that universal archetypes are experienced, and more importantly, that the unconscious is revealed.
With the same death-rebirth myth that Frazer sees as being representative of the growing seasons and agriculture as a point of comparison, a Jungian analysis envisions the death-rebirth archetype as a "symbolic expression of a process taking place not in the world but in the mind.
That process is the return of the ego to the unconscious—a kind of temporary death of the ego—and its re-emergence, or rebirth, from the unconscious" Segal 4. By itself, Jung's theory of the collective unconscious accounts for a considerable share of writings in archetypal literary criticism; it also pre-dates the height of archetypal literary criticism by over a decade.
The Jungian archetypal approach treats literary texts as an avenue in which primordial images are represented. It would not be until the s when the other branch of archetypal literary criticism developed.
Frye[ edit ] Bodkin's Archetypal Patterns in Poetry, the first work on the subject of archetypal literary criticism, applies Jung's theories about the collective unconscious, archetypes, and primordial images to literature. It was not until the work of the Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye that archetypal criticism was theorized in purely literary terms.
The major work of Frye's to deal with archetypes is Anatomy of Criticism but his essay "The Archetypes of Literature" is a precursor to the book. Frye's work helped displace New Criticism as the major mode of analyzing literary texts, before giving way to structuralism and semiotics.
Frye's work breaks from both Frazer and Jung in such a way that it is distinct from its anthropological and psychoanalytical precursors.Sample Story.
Summary. Analysis! Robin Hood.
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