Share via Email This article is over 9 years old Compared to straight men, gay men are more likely to be left-handed, to be the younger siblings of older brothers, and to have hair that whorls in a counterclockwise direction. US researchers are finding common biological traits among gay men, feeding a growing consensus that sexual orientation is an inborn combination of genetic and environmental factors that largely decide a person's sexual attractions before they are born.
Open bibliography in its own window Modern attitudes toward homosexuality have religious, legal, and medical underpinnings. Before the High Middle Ages, homosexual acts appear to have been tolerated or ignored by the Christian church throughout Europe.
Beginning in the latter twelfth century, however, hostility toward homosexuality began to take root, and eventually spread throughout European religious and secular institutions.
Condemnation of homosexual acts and other nonprocreative sexual behavior as "unnatural," which received official expression in the writings of Thomas Aquinas and others, became widespread and has continued through the present day Boswell, Many of the early American colonies, for example, enacted stiff criminal penalties for sodomy, an umbrella term that encompassed a wide variety of sexual acts that were nonprocreative including homosexual behavioroccurred outside of marriage e.
The statutes often described such conduct only in Latin or with oblique phrases such as "wickedness not to be named". In some places, such as the New Haven colony, male and female homosexual acts were punishable by death e. By the end of the 19th century, medicine and psychiatry were effectively competing with religion and the law for jurisdiction over sexuality.
As a consequence, discourse about homosexuality expanded from the realms of sin and crime to include that of pathology. This historical shift was generally considered progressive because a sick person was less blameful than a sinner or criminal e.
Even within medicine and psychiatry, however, homosexuality was not universally viewed as a pathology. Richard von Krafft-Ebing described it as a degenerative sickness in his Psychopathia Sexualis, but Sigmund Freud and Havelock Ellis both adopted more accepting stances.
Early in the twentieth century, Ellis argued that homosexuality was inborn and therefore not immoral, that it was not a disease, and that many homosexuals made outstanding contributions to society Robinson, He believed all human beings were innately bisexual, and that they become heterosexual or homosexual as a result of their experiences with parents and others Freud, Nevertheless, Freud agreed with Ellis that a homosexual orientation should not be viewed as a form of pathology.
In a now-famous letter to an American mother inFreud wrote: Many highly respectable individuals of ancient and modern times have been homosexuals, several of the greatest men among them Plato, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, etc. It is a great injustice to persecute homosexuality as a crime, and cruelty too Later psychoanalysts Later psychoanalysts did not follow this view, however.
Other analysts later argued that homosexuality resulted from pathological family relationships during the oedipal period around years of age and claimed that they observed these patterns in their homosexual patients Bieber et al.
Charles Socarides speculated that the etiology of homosexuality was pre-oedipal and, therefore, even more pathological than had been supposed by earlier analysts for a detailed history, see Lewes, ; for briefer summaries, see Bayer, ; Silverstein, Biases in psychoanalysis Although psychoanalytic theories of homosexuality once had considerable influence in psychiatry and in the larger culture, they were not subjected to rigorous empirical testing.
This procedure compromises the validity of the psychoanalytic conclusions in at least two important ways.Due to lack of supporting data, as well as exponentially increasing pressure from the advocates of homosexuality, the Board of Directors for the American Psychiatric Association voted to remove homosexuality as a mental disorder from the DSM in In this chapter and the three that follow we will address the second point: Is homosexuality innate and inherited?
Notice to Reader: "The Boards of both CERC Canada and CERC USA are aware that the topic of homosexuality is a controversial one that deeply affects the personal lives of many North.
Is homosexuality genetic? “The identification of these chromosomal regions does not imply that homosexuality is a disorder—nor does it imply that there are mutations in the genes in these regions, which still remain to be identified.
If homosexuality is innate/genetic, how has it survived evolutionary selection, given that a. Homosexuality: Disorder or Innate?
Is homosexuality an innate, normal sexual orientation or something one becomes through life’s trials? Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Francis Bacon, Herman Melville and Fredrick the Great all had one thing common, other than their famous personas.
Homosexuality: Disorder or Innate? Is homosexuality an innate, normal sexual orientation or something one becomes through life’s trials? Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Francis Bacon, Herman Melville and Fredrick the Great all had one thing common, other than their famous personas. Dec 04, · Theories of Pathology. These theories regard adult homosexuality as a disease, a condition deviating from “normal,” heterosexual development .The presence of atypical gender behavior or feelings are symptoms of the disease or disorder to which mental health professionals need to attend. Dec 04, · Theories of Pathology. These theories regard adult homosexuality as a disease, a condition deviating from “normal,” heterosexual development .The presence of atypical gender behavior or feelings are symptoms of the disease or disorder to which mental health professionals need to attend.
The view of homosexuality as a psychological disorder has been seen in literature since research on homosexuality first began; however, psychology as a discipline has evolved over the years in its position on homosexuality. Current attitudes have their roots in religious, legal, and cultural underpinnings.
Such findings - including a highly anticipated study this winter - would further inform the debate over whether homosexuality is innate or a choice, an undercurrent of California's recent.