Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Reciprocal Altruism in Vampire Bats Essay Sample Altruism is a social behaviour in which certain organisms expend their time and energy in caring of other members of the species. That occurs because passing on genes is the biological goal of an individual, and also altruistic behavior increases the fitness of the whole group. Vampire bats are example of mammals that show altruistic behaviour.
Taxonomy[ edit ] Due to differences among the three species, each has been placed within a different genuseach consisting of one species. In the older literature, these three genera were placed within a family of their own, Desmodontidae, but taxonomists have now grouped them as a subfamilythe Desmodontinae, in the leaf-nosed bat family, Phyllostomidae.
That suggests that hematophagy feeding on blood evolved only once, and the three species share this common ancestor.
They evolved from frugivorous bats with sharp teeth specialized for piercing fruit  They initially fed on the ectoparasites of large mammals, and then progressed Essay on vampire bats feeding on the mammals themselves  similar to red-billed oxpecker feeding behavior They initially fed on insects that were attracted to the wounds of animals, and then progressed to feeding on the wounds  They initially preyed on small arboreal vertebrates  They were arboreal omnivores themselves and began ingesting blood and flesh from wound sites of larger animals  They were specialized nectar-feeders that evolved to feed on another type of liquid  The vampire bat lineage diverged from its family 26 million years ago.
It also lacks a nose leaf, instead having naked pads with U-shaped grooves at the tip.
Vampire Bats feed off of blood, and this liquid diet is called Hematophagy. They are able to use receptors from the nose to help them find food. You may be wondering how they can live on blood, and it has to do with Draculin in the saliva. This substance ensures the blood from their prey doesn’t end up clotting in the body of the Vampire Bat. About the Common Vampire Bat Bats are the only mammals that can fly, but vampire bats have an even more interesting distinction—they are the only mammals that feed entirely on blood. Nocturnal. Essay on The Vampire in Folklore vs the Vampire in Literature. The vampire, from folklore to literature is described as a “dead person that awakens in the night to suck the blood out of the living”.
The common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, also has specialized thermoreceptors on its nose,  which aid the animal in locating areas where the blood flows close to the skin of its prey.
A nucleus has been found in the brain of vampire bats that has a similar position and similar histology to the infrared receptor of infrared-sensing snakes.
This ability to run seems to have evolved independently within the bat lineage. This is achieved through alternative splicing of TRPV1 transcripts to produce a channel with a truncated carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domain.
These splicing events occur exclusively in trigeminal ganglia, and not in dorsal root ganglia, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious heat in somatic afferents. Ecology and lifecycle[ edit ] Vampire bats tend to live in colonies in almost completely dark places, such as caves, old wells, hollow trees, and buildings.
They range in Central to South America and live in arid to humid, tropical and subtropical areas. Vampire bat colony numbers can range from single digits to hundreds in roosting sites.
The basic social structure of roosting bats is made of female groups and their offspring, a few adult males, known as "resident males", and a separate group of males, known as "nonresident males".
This behavior suggests social thermoregulation. Resident males mate with the females in their harems, and it is less common for outside males to copulate with the females.
A related unique adaptation of vampire bats is the sharing of food. A vampire bat can only survive about two days without a meal of blood, yet they cannot be guaranteed of finding food every night.
This poses a problem, so when a bat fails to find food, it will often "beg" another bat for food. A "donor" bat may regurgitate a small amount of blood to sustain the other member of the colony.
For equally familiar bats, the predictive capacity of reciprocity surpasses that of relatedness. These findings contradict the harassment hypothesis—which claims that individuals share food in order to limit harassment by begging individuals.
Social grooming is mostly associated with food sharing. Like fruit-eating bats, and unlike insectivorous and fish-eating bats, they emit only low-energy sound pulses. The common vampire bat feeds primarily on the blood of mammals occasionally including humanswhereas both the hairy-legged vampire bat and white-winged vampire bat feed primarily on the blood of birds.
Once the common vampire bat locates a host, such as a sleeping mammal, it lands and approaches it on the ground. It then likely uses thermoception to identify a warm spot on the skin to bite.Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more.
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Vampire bats are bats whose food source is blood, a dietary trait called hematophagy. Three extant bat species feed solely on blood: the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), the hairy-legged vampire bat (Diphylla ecaudata), and the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi).Class: Mammalia.
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