Facts about the brain: The brain contains around billion neurons.
An addendum to the Statement on Climate Change: Evidence from the Geological Record December The addendum is arranged such that some sections are unchanged from the original.
For other sections additional information is provided, but this is not merged with the original content. Its is therefore not possible to read a single updated report.
Those who want to read the full addendum should simply use the link provided above. The Discussion in comments What I am soliciting in primary comments is informed opinion driven mainly by what data tells us, backed up by references to data sources.
Primary comments may also take the form of questions. What I am not going to permit is social commentary and chit chat.
Comments will be strictly moderated. What I am aiming for is to assemble information in one place that either supports or refutes the position of The Geological Society. We will find out soon if it works.
If anyone is experiencing difficulty posting long comments then contact me by email. After one comment has been approved, subsequent comments should appear automatically.
On Monday 22 January, a new post was added that details the role of The Sun: That evidence is highly relevant to understanding how it may change in the future. The statement is intended for non-specialists and Fellows of the Society. It is based on analysis of geological evidence, and not on analysis of recent temperature or satellite data, or climate model projections.
It contains references to support key statements, indicated by superscript numbers, and a reading list for those who wish to explore the subject further. What is climate change, and how do geologists know about it? The climate is the statistical average of the weather taken over a long period, typically 30 years.
It is never static, but subject to constant disturbances, sometimes minor in nature and effect, but at other times much larger. In some cases these changes are gradual and in others abrupt. Evidence for climate change is preserved in a wide range of geological settings, including marine and lake sediments, ice sheets, fossil corals, stalagmites and fossil tree rings.
Advances in field observation, laboratory techniques and numerical modelling allow geoscientists to show, with increasing confidence, how and why climate has changed in the past.
For example, cores drilled through the ice sheets yield a record of polar temperatures and atmospheric composition ranging back toyears in Greenland andyears in Antarctica.
Oceanic sediments preserve a record reaching back tens of millions of years, and older sedimentary rocks extend the record to hundreds of millions of years.
This vital baseline of knowledge about the past provides the context for estimating likely changes in the future. What are the grounds for concern?
The last century has seen a rapidly growing global population and much more intensive use of resources, leading to greatly increased emissions of gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, from the burning of fossil fuels oil, gas and coaland from agriculture, cement production and deforestation. Evidence from the geological record is consistent with the physics that shows that adding large amounts of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere warms the world and may lead to: Life on Earth has survived large climate changes in the past, but extinctions and major redistribution of species have been associated with many of them.
When the human population was small and nomadic, a rise in sea level of a few metres would have had very little effect on Homo sapiens.
With the current and growing global population, much of which is concentrated in coastal cities, such a rise in sea level would have a drastic effect on our complex society, especially if the climate were to change as suddenly as it has at times in the past. Equally, it seems likely that as warming continues some areas may experience less precipitation leading to drought.
With both rising seas and increasing drought, pressure for human migration could result on a large scale.
About 34 million years ago, at the end of the Eocene, ice caps coalesced to form a continental ice sheet on Antarctica [12,13].Discuss the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms Biological rhythms are controlled by endogenous pacemakers, which are our internal biological clocks and these rhythms are also affected by exogenous zeitgebers, for example light, food and noise.
May 20, · Discuss research into the disruption of biological rhythms (eg shift work, jet lag). (8 marks + 16 marks) Rhythms such as the circadian sleep/wake cycle can be disrupted when people work shift patterns or experience jet lag.
Philosophy relates to the study of, and attempts to understand, the root nature of reality, existence, and knowledge. There are many questions in life for which there are no set answers, or such diverging opinions on answers that just raise more questions.
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Discuss the Consequences of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Essay Discuss the consequences of disrupting biological rhythms Biological rhythms are controlled by endogenous pacemakers, which are our internal biological clocks and these rhythms are also affected .