Gender inequality in India Secondary education covers children aged 12 to 18, a group comprising 8. The two halves of secondary education are each an important stage for which a pass certificate is needed, and thus are affiliated by central boards of education under HRD ministry, before one can pursue higher education, including college or professional courses. Those at least 15 years old by 30 May for a given academic year are eligible to appear for Secondary board exams, and those 17 by the same date are eligible to appear for Higher Secondary certificate board exams.
Telecommunications have been recognized the world-over as an important tool for socio-economic development of a nation. It has become core infrastructure required for rapid growth and modernisation of various sectors of the economy.
There has been a phenomenal growth of the telecom sector in terms of subscribers and revenues over the past one and a half decades in India. Today, India is amongst top three of largest and one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world.
The Indian telecom industry has grown from a tele-density of 3. This great leap in both the number of subscribers and revenues from telecom services has contributed significantly to the growth in GDP and employment.
However the penetration of mobile internet is very low in country in comparison to other nations. Large investments and efforts from industry as well as Government are required to expand the mobile telephony related infrastructure, which include tower, with a view to expand the mobile telephony based services and take these to rural and remote areas.
This needs to be done, so that the dream of broadband for all can be realised and benefit of this technology can be reaped by all sections of society. Telecom towers are critical installations on which the backbone of mobile communication rests. These are essential for realizing the vision of inclusive growth.
The success of initiatives like Digital India, Smart Cities and right to Broadband, which the Government intends to implement in mission mode, depends on this critical and essential infrastructure.
Mobile communications play important role in social and economic growth and disaster management for which mobile towers are a pre-requisite.
A robust and scalable mobile infrastructure including towers is must for universal access to communication, effective delivery of services to citizens and financial inclusion. Realizing the significance of mobile towers, Government of India has included it in the harmonized list of infrastructure vide its Gazette notification dated Simplifying the sectoral policy for Right of way, for laying cable network and installation of towers, has also been incorporated as one of the strategies for achieving the broad objectives of the National Telecom Policy, In this regard, several studies have been conducted in different countries, under the aegis of World Health Organization WHO.
WHO has referred to approximately 25, articles published around the world over past 30 years, and based on an in-depth review of scientific literature, has concluded: Since the effects on human beings are to be studied over a long period of time, further studies are going on around the world.
From all evidence accumulated so far, no adverse short or long term health effects have been shown to occur from the RF Signals produced by based stations.
In SeptemberWHO in online question and answers, have mentioned that "Studies to date provide no indication that environmental exposure to RF fields, such as from base stations, increases the risk of cancer or any other disease.
In respect of EMF radiations from mobile handsets, WHO in Fact Sheet published in June has concluded that "A large number of studies have been performed over the last two decades to assess whether mobile phones pose a potential health risk.
To date, no adverse health effects have been established as being caused by mobile phone use". International EMF Project 8. The EMF Project encourages focused research to fill important gaps in knowledge and to facilitate the development of internationally acceptable standards limiting EMF exposure.
Since the commencement of the EMF Project, over 50 national authorities have been involved. Apart from the national authorities the project is overseen by 8 international organizations and independent collaborating institutions and together they review scientific information related to public and occupational health, and environmental management of the EMF issue.
It is pertinent to note that many of these studies have been going on for years so as to understand the effect of EMF over the period of time and these studies are not specific to developed countries alone. WHO's International EMF Project was launched to provide scientifically sound and objective answers to public concerns about possible hazards of low level electromagnetic fields.
Despite extensive research, to date there is no evidence to conclude that exposure to low level electromagnetic fields is harmful to human health WHO recommended that 'National authorities should adopt international standards to protect their citizens against adverse levels of RF fields.
They should restrict access to areas where exposure limits may be exceeded.
However, there are gaps in knowledge still needing to be filled before better health risk assessments can be made. Steps taken by Department of Telecommunications Department of Telecommunication DoTsincehas been monitoring global developments and has already taken necessary steps and adopted stricter norms for safety from EMF radiation that are emitted from mobile towers and mobile handsets.
arteensevilla.commmunications have been recognized the world-over as an important tool for socio-economic development of a nation.
It has become core infrastructure required for rapid growth and modernisation of various sectors of the economy. Introduction. The Indian Media and Entertainment (M&E) industry is a sunrise sector for the economy and is making high growth strides.
Proving its resilience to the world, the Indian M&E industry is on the cusp of a strong phase of growth, backed by rising consumer demand and improving advertising revenues.
A case study: ABC Private Limited, a company incorporated in Mumbai having two shareholders, one is Mr. A, an individual holding equity shares of Rs.
10 each and other is ABC Inc. (a body corporate) situated in USA, holding equity share of Rs. 10 each. Preliminary versions of economic research. Did Consumers Want Less Debt? Consumer Credit Demand Versus Supply in the Wake of the Financial Crisis.